COVID-19 Research Using C. elegans  Models

Genetic Models for COVID-19 Research

InVivo Biosystems is ready to help you with your COVID-19 research! We offer our genetic expertise in the engineering of humanizations, fluorescence markers, luciferase, activity reporters, and conditional expression to help you interrogate drug and vaccine activity, binding interactions, mechanism of action, and more.

We can provide the following genetic models using C. elegans:

ACE2 Humanized Biosensor Model

  • This C. elegans line expresses the human ACE2 receptor fused with GFP under a ubiquitous promoter.  Upon treatment with Spike protein, the ACE2 receptor translocates from the cell surface to cytoplasmic vesicles.
  • This strain will help visualize the localization of the ACE2 receptor and whether drug treatment has disrupted this mechanism or whether RNA or DNA- encoding antigens and viral pseudotypes are successful in triggering it.

ACE2 Endocytosis Biosensor Model

  • This C. elegans line expresses the human ACE2 receptor fused with a pH sensitive GFP variant,  pHlorin,  under a ubiquitous promoter. The pHlorin biomarker fluoresces more strongly following endocytosis of the ACE2 protein into endosomes where there is a marked pH drop.
  • This strain can help researchers determine to what extent ACE2 is endocytosed and the dynamics of release of viral content into the cell. 

ACE2/ TMPRSS2 Double Humanized Model:

  • This C. elegans line expresses the human ACE2 receptor and the human TMPRSS2 protease under a ubiquitous promoter. The ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are each fused with one part of a split GFP (ACE2::GFP1-10 and TMPRSS2::GFP11).
  • This line enables the easy visualization of the colocalization of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. 

ACE2 Strain Longevity Platform

  • COVID-19 has a marked increase in severity in those with advanced age. C.elegans is a validated model organism to study longevity and aging.
  • We offer a Longevity Platform analysis in our ACE2 humanized line to experimentally test drugs and vaccine behavior during immune senescence. 

ACE2 Variant Analysis

  • We can rapidly induce point mutations in the canonical human ACE2 and TMPRSS2 sequences, enabling researchers to perform variant analysis in these genes in the Humanized line.  


Publication: Platforms for Personalized Polytherapeutics Discovery in COVID-19. C. Hopkins, C. Onweni, V. Zambito, D. Fairweather, K. McCormick, E. Hideki, T.Caulfield, Y. Shrike Zhang, W. David Freeman, Journal of Molecular Biology (2021), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2021.166945.

Blog: Seeking new drugs against COVID-19. Read Now. >>

To search the pre-print literature on COVID-19, we recommend using the NIH's search tool.

The table below lists 300+ human genes whose protein products interact with specific SARS-CoV-2 proteins. In other words, these are genes with known interaction with human proteins. The list also includes these human genes' orthologs in zebrafish and C. elegans for your reference. You can read more about these genes here. If you are interested in studying these genes using genetically edited zebrafish or C. elegans models, please contact us.

Expand the table below to view all genes.

Human gene Interactive SARS-CoV-2 gene C. elegans ortholog Zebrafish ortholog
PRIM1 Nsp1 pri-1 prim1
PRIM2 Nsp1 pri-2 prim2
POLA1 Nsp1 pola-1 pola1
POLA2 Nsp1 div-1 pola2
COLGALT1 Nsp1 D2045.9 colgalt1
PKP2 Nsp1 jac-1 pkp2
POR Nsp2 emb-8 porb
GIGYF2 Nsp2 C18H9.3 gigyf2
EIF4E2 Nsp2 ife-4 eif4e2
SLC27A2 Nsp2 acs-20 slc27a2b
RAP1GDS1 Nsp2 rap1gds1
FKBP15 Nsp2 fkb-5 si:ch73-199g24.2
WASHC4 Nsp2 Y53F4B.21 washc4
TIMM10 Nsp4 tin-10 timm10
TIMM10B Nsp4 tin-9.2 timm10b
TIMM9 Nsp4 tin-9.1 timm9
TIMM29 Nsp4 R04F11.5 timm29
ALG11 Nsp4 algn-11 alg11
NUP210 Nsp4 npp-12 nup210
DNAJC11 Nsp4 dnj-9 dnajc11a
IDE Nsp4 F44E7.4 ide
HDAC2 Nsp5 C145A hda-1 hdac1
TRMT1 Nsp5 C145A trm-1 trmt1
GPX1 Nsp5 C145A gpx-3 gpx1a
ATP13A3 Nsp6 catp-6 atp13a3
ATP5MG Nsp6 asg-2 atp5l
ATP6AP1 Nsp6 vha-19 atp6ap1a
SIGMAR1 Nsp6 W08F4.3 sigmar1
DCAKD Nsp7 T05G5.5 dcakd
NAT14 Nsp7 nat14
SCARB1 Nsp7 scav-3 scarb1
CYB5B Nsp7 cytb-5.1 cyb5b
PTGES2 Nsp7 pges-2 ptgesl
CYB5R3 Nsp7 T05H4.4 cyb5r3
RAB18 Nsp7 rab-18 rab18b
RAB14 Nsp7 rab-14 rab14
RAB8A Nsp7 rab-8 rab8a
RAB7A Nsp7 rab-7 rab7a
RAB10 Nsp7 rab-10 rab10
RAB5C Nsp7 rab-5 rab5c
RAB2A Nsp7 unc-108 rab2a
RAB1A Nsp7 rab-1 rab1ab
LMAN2 Nsp7 ile-2 lman2
GNG5 Nsp7 gpc-1 gng5
GNB1 Nsp7 gpb-1 gnb1b
NDUFAF2 Nsp7 Y116A8C.30 ndufaf2
COMT Nsp7 comt-3 comtb
HS2ST1 Nsp7 hst-2 hs2st1a
QSOX2 Nsp7 F47B7.2 qsox2
RALA Nsp7 ral-1 ralaa
RHOA Nsp7 rho-1 rhoab
SCCPDH Nsp7 F22F7.2 sccpdhb
SELENOS Nsp7 F26F4.9 selenos
AGPS Nsp7 ads-1 agps
TOR1AIP1 Nsp7 T09B4.2 si:dkeyp-82a1.6
DNAJC19 Nsp7 dnj-21 dnajc19
MOGS Nsp7 mogs-1 mogs
ACSL3 Nsp7 acs-4 acsl3b
FAM162A Nsp7 M05D6.6 fam162a
LARP7 Nsp8 ssb-1 larp7
MEPCE Nsp8 Y17G7B.18 mepce
MRPS5 Nsp8 mrps-5 mrps5
MRPS27 Nsp8 mrps-27 mrps27
MRPS25 Nsp8 mrps-25 mrps25
MRPS2 Nsp8 mrps-2 mrps2
SEPSECS Nsp8 secs-1 sepsecs
ATE1 Nsp8 ate-1 ate1
MPHOSPH10 Nsp8 Y75B8A.7 mphosph10
NSD2 Nsp8 mes-4 nsd2
DDX10 Nsp8 Y23H5B.6 ddx10
HECTD1 Nsp8 hecd-1 hectd1
NGDN Nsp8 lpd-2 ngdn
NOL10 Nsp8 nol-10 nol10
AATF Nsp8 Y73E7A.2 aatf
SRP19 Nsp8 F37F2.2 srp19
SRP54 Nsp8 F21D5.7 srp54
SRP72 Nsp8 srpa-72 srp72
CCDC86 Nsp8 Y40B1B.7 si:ch211-217k17.7
NARS2 Nsp8 nars-2 nars2
EXOSC2 Nsp8 exos-2 exosc2
EXOSC5 Nsp8 crn-5 exosc5
EXOSC3 Nsp8 exos-3 exosc3
EXOSC8 Nsp8 exos-8 exosc8
DCAF7 Nsp9 swan-2 dcaf7
EIF4H Nsp9 drr-2 eif4h
NUP54 Nsp9 npp-1 nup54
NUP88 Nsp9 nup88
NUP62 Nsp9 npp-11 nup62l
NUP214 Nsp9 npp-14 nup214
NUP58 Nsp9 npp-11 nup58
MAT2B Nsp9 ZC449.8 mat2b
ZNF503 Nsp9 tlp-1 znf503
FBN2 Nsp9 fbn-1 fbn2a
FBN1 Nsp9 fbn-1 fbn2b
FBLN5 Nsp9 fbn-1 fbln5
SPART Nsp9 spg-20 sparta
MIB1 Nsp9 mib-1 mib1
NEK9 Nsp9 nekl-1 nek9
GTF2F2 Nsp9 gtf-2F2 gtf2f2a
GFER Nsp10 F56C11.3 gfer
GRPEL1 Nsp10 C34C12.8 grpel1
ERGIC1 Nsp10 Y102A11A.6 ergic1
AP2A2 Nsp10 apa-2 ap2a1
AP2M1 Nsp10 dpy-23 ap2m1b
TBCA Nsp11 tbca-1 tbca
RIPK1 Nsp12 ksr-1 ripk1l
RBM41 Nsp12 rbm41
PRRC2B Nsp12 F52G3.1 prrc2b
PLEKHA5 Nsp12 nab-1 plekha5
PDZD11 Nsp12 lin-7 pdzd11
MYCBP2 Nsp12 rpm-1 mycbp2
LARP4B Nsp12 larp-5 larp4b
CRTC3 Nsp12 crtc-1 crtc3
AKAP8 Nsp12 akap8l
UBAP2L Nsp12 pqn-59 ubap2l
UBAP2 Nsp12 pqn-59 ubap2a
ZNF318 Nsp12 D1044.6 znf318
ZC3H7A Nsp12 zc3h7a
BCKDK Nsp12 pdhk-2 bckdk
USP54 Nsp12 usp54a
TYSND1 Nsp12 psmd-9 tysnd1
TCF12 Nsp12 hlh-2 tcf12
SBNO1 Nsp12 let-765 sbno1
PPIL3 Nsp12 cyn-10 ppil3
SLU7 Nsp12 K07C5.6 slu7
GLA Nsp14 gana-1 gla
SIRT5 Nsp14 sir-2.3 sirt5
IMPDH2 Nsp14 T22D1.3 impdh2
NUTF2 Nsp15 ran-4 nutf2
RNF41 Nsp15 trf-1 rnf41
ARF6 Nsp15 arf-6 arf6a
AKAP9 Nsp13 akap9
PRKACA Nsp13 kin-1 prkacaa
PRKAR2A Nsp13 kin-2 prkar2aa
PRKAR2B Nsp13 kin-2 prkar2b
PDE4DIP Nsp13 si:ch211-242b18.1
HOOK1 Nsp13 zyg-12 hook1
GOLGA2 Nsp13 golg-2 golga2
GOLGA3 Nsp13 golga3
GOLGB1 Nsp13 syp-1 golgb1
GORASP1 Nsp13 Y42H9AR.1 gorasp1a
GCC2 Nsp13 gcc-2 LOC101886383
GCC1 Nsp13 gcc-1 gcc1
FYCO1 Nsp13 ZK632.12 fyco1a
HSBP1 Nsp13 hsb-1 hsbp1b
USP13 Nsp13 usp-5 usp13
MIPOL1 Nsp13 mipol1
TLE1 Nsp13 unc-37 tle2b
TLE3 Nsp13 unc-37 tle3b
TLE5 Nsp13 eya-1 tle5
CIT Nsp13 W02B8.2 cita
TBKBP1 Nsp13 tbkbp1
TBK1 Nsp13 Y39G8B.5 tbk1
GRIPAP1 Nsp13 F41H10.4 gripap1
JAKMIP1 Nsp13 C14H10.2 jakmip1
CLIP4 Nsp13 clip-1 clip3
RDX Nsp13 erm-1 msna
C1orf50 Nsp13 C08B11.9 zgc:112255
ERC1 Nsp13 elks-1 erc1a
CENPF Nsp13 hcp-1 cenpf
CDK5RAP2 Nsp13 cdk5rap2
PCNT Nsp13 pcnt
CEP112 Nsp13 cep112
NINL Nsp13 T04F8.6 ninl
CEP135 Nsp13 cep135
NIN Nsp13 T04F8.6 nin
CNTRL Nsp13 T23F2.2 cntrl
CEP68 Nsp13 cep68
CEP250 Nsp13 lfi-1 crocc2
CEP43 Nsp13
CEP350 Nsp13 dnc-1 cep350
GOLGA7 Spike Y57G11C.33 golga7
ZDHHC5 Spike dhhc-8 zdhhc5a
ALG5 Orf3a algn-5 alg5
TRIM59 Orf3a B0281.3 trim59
HMOX1 Orf3a hmox1a
VPS11 Orf3a vps-11 vps11
VPS39 Orf3a vps-39 vps39
SUN2 Orf3a unc-84 si:dkey-92f12.2
CLCC1 Orf3a ooc-3 clcc1
ARL6IP6 Orf3a arl6ip6
STOML2 Orf3b stl-1 stoml2
CWC27 E cyn-16 cwc27
BRD2 E bet-1 brd2a
BRD4 E bet-1 brd4
SLC44A2 E chtl-1 slc44a2
ZC3H18 E zc3h18
AP3B1 E apb-3 ap3b1a
FAM98A N tag-322 fam98a
SNIP1 N C32E8.5 snip1
CSNK2B N kin-10 csnk2b
CSNK2A2 N kin-3 csnk2a2b
G3BP1 N gtbp-1 g3bp1
MOV10 N eri-7 mov10a
PABPC1 N pab-2 pabpc1a
RBM28 N rbm-28 rbm28
LARP1 N larp-1 larp1
PABPC4 N pab-2 pabpc4
RRP9 N T02H6.1 rrp9
UPF1 N smg-2 upf1
RPL36 N rpl-36 rpl36
DDX21 N mut-14 ddx21
SAAL1 M saal1
AAR2 M F10B5.2 aar2
TARS2 M tars-1 tars2
STOM M sto-2 stom
PSMD8 M rpn-12 psmd8
PMPCB M mppb-1 pmpcb
PMPCA M mppa-1 pmpca
PITRM1 M C05D11.1 pitrm1
INTS4 M W04A4.5 ints4
GGCX M ggcx
FASTKD5 M B0564.7 fastkd5
FAM8A1 M F48B9.8 fam8a1a
ETFA M F27D4.1 etfa
COQ8B M coq-8 coq8b
BZW2 M bzw2
ATP6V1A M vha-13 atp6v1ab
ATP1B1 M nkb-3 atp1b1a
AASS M aass-1 aass
ACADM M acdh-8 acadm
AKAP8L M akap8l
ANO6 M anoh-1 ano6
TUBGCP3 M tubgcp3
TUBGCP2 M gip-1 tubgcp2
RTN4 M ret-1 rtn4a
REEP5 M yop-1 reep5
REEP6 M yop-1 reep6
SLC30A9 M Y71H2AM.9 slc30a9
SLC30A7 M Y105E8A.3 slc30a7
SLC25A21 M slc-25A21 slc25a21
ECSIT Orf9c Y17G9B.5 ecsit
NDUFAF1 Orf9c nuaf-1 ndufaf1
NDUFB9 Orf9c C16A3.5 ndufb9
ACAD9 Orf9c acdh-12 acad9
FAR2 Orf9c fard-1 si:dkey-97m3.1
WFS1 Orf9c wfs1b
PIGO Orf9c pigo-1 pigo
RETREG3 Orf9c retreg3
UBXN8 Orf9c H40L08.1 ubxn8
NLRX1 Orf9c nlrx1
TMEM97 Orf9c tmem97
ERMP1 Orf9c B0495.7 LOC100330918
TAPT1 Orf9c F26F2.7 tapt1b
PIGS Orf9c pigs-1 pigs
GPAA1 Orf9c gpaa-1 gpaa1
SLC30A6 Orf9c toc-1 slc30a6
TMED5 Orf9c tmed-1 tmed5
SCAP Orf9c scp-1 scap
BCS1L Orf9c bcs-1 bcs1l
NDFIP2 Orf9c ndfip2
DPY19L1 Orf9c dpy-19 dpy19l1l
F2RL1 Orf9c gnrr-4 f2rl1.2
GHITM Orf9c K11H12.8 ghitm
ABCC1 Orf9c mrp-1 abcc1
TMEM39B Orf9c D1007.5 tmem39b
ALG8 Orf9c algn-8 alg8
FBXL12 Orf8 fbxa-219 amn1
POGLUT3 Orf8 poglut3
PLEKHF2 Orf8 ZK632.12 plekhf2
CISD3 Orf8 cisd-3.1 zgc:110843
INHBE Orf8 daf-7 LOC100329520
GDF15 Orf8 tig-2 LOC101886665
SMOC1 Orf8 smoc-1 smoc1
NEU1 Orf8 neu1
PLAT Orf8 svh-1 plat
POGLUT2 Orf8 poglut2
STC2 Orf8 W01A8.8 stc2a
NPTX1 Orf8 nptx1l
POFUT1 Orf8 C15C7.7 pofut1
HS6ST2 Orf8 hst-6 hs6st2
MFGE8 Orf8 ddr-1 mfge8b
ERP44 Orf8 erp-44.1 erp44
CHPF2 Orf8 mig-22 chpf2
EMC1 Orf8 emc-1 emc1
DNMT1 Orf8 dnmt1
ITGB1 Orf8 pat-3 itgb1a
ADAM9 Orf8 adm-2 zgc:174164
PCSK6 Orf8 kpc-1 pcsk5a
PLD3 Orf8 F09G2.8 pld3
PUSL1 Orf8 Y73B6BL.29 pusl1
IL17RA Orf8 ilcr-1 il17ra1a
GGH Orf8 ggh
FKBP7 Orf8 fkb-7 fkbp7
FKBP10 Orf8 fkb-4 fkbp10b
PLOD2 Orf8 let-268 plod2
COL6A1 Orf8 C16E9.1 col6a1
PVR Orf8 him-4 pvrl2l
LOX Orf8 loxa
CHPF2 Orf8 mig-22 chpf2
NPC2 Orf8 heh-1 npc2
TM2D3 Orf8 C41D11.9 tm2d3
ADAMTS1 Orf8 gon-1 adamts1
SDF2 Orf8 R12E2.13 sdf2
FOXRED2 Orf8 C01H6.4 foxred2
TOR1A Orf8 tor-2 tor1
NGLY1 Orf8 png-1 ngly1
HYOU1 Orf8 T14G8.3 hyou1
SIL1 Orf8 sil1
ERO1B Orf8 ero-1 ero1b
UGGT2 Orf8 uggt-1 uggt2
OS9 Orf8 F48E8.4 os9
ERLEC1 Orf8 Y105E8A.2 erlec1
EDEM3 Orf8 ZC506.1 edem3
MTCH1 Orf6 mtch-1 mtch2
NUP98 Orf6 npp-10 nup98
RAE1 Orf6 rae-1 rae1
HEATR3 Orf7a heatr3
MDN1 Orf7a F55F10.1 mdn1
BAG5 Orf9b bag5
PTBP2 Orf9b ptb-1 ptbp2b
CSDE1 Orf9b csde1
DPH5 Orf9b B0491.7 dph5
CHMP2A Orf9b vps-2 chmp2a
SLC9A3R1 Orf9b nrfl-1 slc9a3r1a
TOMM70 Orf9b tomm-70 tomm70a
DCTPP1 Orf9b dctpp1
MARK3 Orf9b par-1 mark3b
MARK1 Orf9b par-1 mark1
MARK2 Orf9b par-1 mark2b
CUL2 Orf10 cul-2 cul2
RBX1 Orf10 rbx-1 rbx1
ELOB Orf10 elb-1 elob
ELOC Orf10 elc-1 elocb
ZYG11B Orf10 zyg-11 zyg11
PPT1 Orf10 ppt-1 ppt1
TIMM8B Orf10 ddp-1 timm8b
THTPA Orf10 thtpa
MAP7D1 Orf10 sdc-2 map7d1a

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