Recent Publications

C. elegans as a Disease Model

DMM (Disease Models & Mechanisms) presents a collection of articles showcasing how C. elegans can bridge basic and translational research into human disease. Read the collections.

Zebrafish as a Disease Model

DMM (Disease Models & Mechanisms) presents a collection of  research articles, resources, reviews and interviews that illustrate the translational impact of zebrafish research across a broad range of disease areas. Read the collections.

C. elegans Transgenics

Inject Express

Pharmacological and functional similarities of the human neuropeptide Y system in C. elegans challenges phylogenetic views on the FLP/NPR system.
Miron Mikhailowitsch Gershkovich, Victoria Elisabeth Groß, Anette Kaiser & Simone Prömel. Cell Communication and Signaling. Volume 17, Article number: 123 (2019).

Structural Principles in Robo Activation and Auto-inhibition. Barak R, Yom-Tov G, Guez-Haddad J, Gasri-Plotnitsky L, Maimon R, Cohen-Berkman M, McCarthy AA, Perlson E, Henis-Korenblit S, Isupov MN, Opatowsky Y. Cell.  2019 Apr 4;177(2):272-285.e16. 


Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates hnRNPA2 granule protein partitioning & reduces neurodegeneration. Veronica H. Ryan, Theodora Myrto Perdikari, Mandar T. Naik, Camillo F. Saueressig, Jeremy Lins, Gregory L. Dignon, Jeetain Mittal, Anne C. Hart, Nicolas L. Fawzi. bioRxiv. March 18, 2020.

Tensin regulates pharyngeal pumping in Caenorhabditis elegans. Aaron N.Bruns, Su Hao Lo. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Volume 522, Issue 3, 12 February 2020, Pages 599-603.

TRAIP drives replisome disassembly and mitotic DNA repair synthesis at sites of incomplete DNA replication. Remi Sonneville, Rahul Bhowmick, Saskia Hoffmann, Niels Mailand, Ian D Hickson, Karim Labib. eLife 2019;8:e48686.

DOT1L complex suppresses transcription from enhancer elements and ectopic RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans. Esse R, Gushchanskaia ES, Lord A, Grishok, A. RNA. 2019.  

DOT1L suppresses nuclear RNAi originating from enhancer elements in Caenorhabditis elegans. Esse R, Gushchanskaia E, Lord A, Grishok A. BioRxiv. 2018. 1-46.

New finding a CRISPR/Cas9-generated cdc-7 loss of function mutation does not cause temperature-dependent fertility defects. Heather Currey and Nicole Liachko. microPublication Biology, 2019.

Loss of function CHCHD10 mutations in cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation and synaptic integrity. Woo JA, Liu T, Trotter C, Fang CC, De Narvaez E, LePochat P, Maslar D, Bukhari A, Zhao X, Deonarine A, Westerheide SD, Kang DE. Nat Commun. 2017 Jun 6;8:15558.


Zebrafish CYP1A expression in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans protects from exposures to benzo[a]pyrene and a complex polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture. Jamie B. Harrisa, Jessica H.Hartman, Anthony L. Luz, Joanna Y. Wilson, Audrey Dinyaria, Joel N.Meyer. Toxicology. Volume 440, July 2020, 152473.

RNA-Based Therapy Utilizing Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy Transcript Knockdown and Replacement. Abu-Baker A, Kharma N, Perreault J, Grant A, Shekarabi M, Maios C, Dona M, Neri C, Dion PA, Parker A, Varin L, Rouleau GA. Molecular Therapy Nucleic Acids. 2019 April 15;15: 12-25.

Developmental dynamics of gene expression and alternative polyadenylation in the Caenorhabditis elegans germline. West SM, Mecenas D, Gutwein M, Aristizábal-Corrales D, Piano F, Gunsalus KC. Genome Biol. 2018 Jan 24;19(1):8.

Linking Genomic and Metabolomic Natural Variation Uncovers Nematode Pheromone Biosynthesis. Falcke JM, Bose N, Artyukhin AB, Rödelsperger C, Markov GV, Yim JJ, Grimm D, Claassen MH, Panda O, Baccile JA, Zhang YK, Le HH, Jolic D, Schroeder FC, Sommer RJ. Cell Chem Biol. 2018 Jun 21;25(6):787-796.e12.

Mixtures of chemical pollutants at European legislation safety concentrations: how safe are they? Carvalho, RN; Arukwe, A; Ait-Aissa, S; Bado-Nilles, A; Balzamo, S; Baun, A; Belkin, S; Blaha, L; Brion, F; Conti, D; Creusot, N; Essig, Y; Ferrero, VE; Flander-Putrle, V; Fürhacker, M; Grillari-Voglauer, R; Hogstrand, C; Jonáš, A; Kharlyngdoh, JB; Loos, R; Lundebye, AK; Modig, C; Olsson, PE; Pillai, S; Polak, N; Potalivo, M; Sanchez, W; Schifferli, A; Schirmer, K; Sforzini, S; Stürzenbaum, SR; Søfteland, L; Turk, V; Viarengo, A; Werner, I; Yagur-Kroll, S; Zounková, R; Lettieri, T. Toxicol Sci. 2014 Sep;141(1):218-33.

Plastin increases cortical connectivity to facilitate robust polarization and timely cytokinesis. Ding, WY; Ong, HT; Hara, Y; Wongsantichon, J; Toyama, Y; Robinson, RC; Nédélec, F; Zaidel-Bar, R. J Cell Biol. 2017 May 1;216(5):1371-1386.

The secreted MSP domain of C. elegans VAPB homolog VPR-1 patterns the adult striated muscle mitochondrial reticulum via SMN-1. Schultz, J; Lee, SJ; Cole, T; Hoang, HD; Vibbert, J; Cottee, PA; Miller, MA; Han, SM. Development. 2017 Jun 15;144(12):2175-2186.

MED GATA factors promote robust development of the C. elegans endoderm. Maduro, MF; Broitman-Maduro, G; Choi, H; Carranza, F; Wu, AC; Rifkin, SA. Dev Biol. 2015 Aug 1;404(1):66-79.

The 14-3-3 protein PAR-5 regulates the asymmetric localization of the LET-99 spindle positioning protein. Wu, JC; Espiritu, EB; Rose, LS. Dev Biol. 2016 Apr 15;412(2):288-297.

Expression of human Bcl-xL (Ser49) and (Ser62) mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans causes germline defects and aneuploidy. Baruah, PS; Beauchemin, M; Parker, JA; Bertrand, R. PLoS One. 2017 May 8;12(5):e0177413.

Longevity Genes Revealed by Integrative Analysis of Isoform-Specific daf-16/FoxO Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans. Chen, AT; Guo, C;Itani, OA; Budaitis, BG; Williams, TW; Hopkins, CE; McEachin, RC; Pande, M;Grant, AR; Yoshina, S; Mitani, S; Hu, PJ. Genetics. 2015 Oct;201(2):613-29.

Matefin/SUN-1 Phosphorylation on Serine 43 Is Mediated by CDK-1 and Required for Its Localization to Centrosomes and Normal Mitosis in C. elegans Embryos. Zuela, N; Gruenbaum, Y. Cells. 2016 Feb 24;5(1).

Point Mutation

Single Amino Acid Changes in the Ryanodine Receptor in the Human Population Have Effects In Vivo on Caenorhabditis elegans Neuro-Muscular Function. Brittany Graham, Marie-Anne Shaw and Ian A. Hope. Front. Genet., 26 February 2020.

Repurposing the aldose reductase inhibitor and diabetic neuropathy drug epalrestat for the congenital disorder of glycosylation PMM2-CDG. Iyer S, Murthy K, Parton Z, Tsang H, Sam FS. bioRxiv. 2019 May 3; 1-29

Regulation of the sperm-to-oocyte transition in Caenorhabditis briggsae hermaphrodites by the Cbr-met-2 and Cbr-fem-3 genes. Berenson AL, Baird SE. Mol Reprod Dev. 2018 Jun;85(6):532-542.

NALCN channelopathies: Distinguishing gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations. Bend, EG; Si, Y; Stevenson, DA; Bayrak-Toydemir, P; Newcomb, TM; Jorgensen, EM; Swoboda, KJ. Neurology. 2016 Sep 13;87(11):1131-9.

An RNAi-based suppressor screen identifies interactors of the Myt1 ortholog of Caenorhabditis elegans. Allen, AK; Nesmith, JE; Golden, A. G3 (Bethesda). 2014 Oct 8;4(12):2329-43.

LEM-3 is a midbody-tethered DNA nuclease that resolves chromatin bridges during cytokinesis.HONG, Y; Sonneville, R; Wang, B; Scheidt, V; Meier, B; Woglar, A; Demetriou, S; Labib, K; Jantsch, V; Gartner, A. Nat Commun. 2018 Feb 20;9(1):728.

Precise Deletion

A Role in Apoptosis Regulation for the rad-51 Gene of Caenorhabditis elegans. Germoglio M, Adamo A. Genetics. 2018 Aug;209(4):1017-1028.

WAH-1/AIF regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Troulinaki K, Büttner S, Marsal Cots A, Maida S, Meyer K, Bertan F, Gioran A, Piazzesi A, Fornarelli A, Nicotera P, Bano D. Cell Death Discov. 2018 Jan 29;4:2.


Diet-responsive Transcriptional Regulation of Insulin in a Single Neuron Controls Systemic Metabolism. Ava Handley, Qiuli Wu, Tessa Sherry, Roger Pocock. bioRxiv. August 31, 2019.

The exocyst complex and Rab5 are required for abscission by localizing ESCRT III subunits to the cytokinetic bridge. Harsh Kumar, Kumari Pushpa, Amrita Kumari, Kuldeep Verma, Rajaiah Pergu, Sivaram V. S. Mylavarapu. J. of Cell Science. 17 July 2019.

The myosin light-chain kinase MLCK-1 relocalizes during Caenorhabditis elegans ovulation to promote actomyosin bundle assembly and drive contraction. Charlotte A. Kelley, Alison C. E. Wirshing, Ronen Zaidel-Bar, and Erin J. Cram. MBoC. August 08, 2018: 1917-2035.

Syncytial germline architecture is actively maintained by contraction of an internal actomyosin corset. Priti A, Ong HT, Toyama Y, Padmanabhan A, Dasgupta S, Krajnc M, Zaidel-Bar R. Nat Commun. 2018 Nov 8;9(1):4694. 

Disruption of the Caenorhabditis elegans Integrator complex triggers a non-conventional transcriptional mechanism beyond snRNA genes. Gómez-Orte E, Sáenz-Narciso B, Zheleva A, Ezcurra B, de Toro M, López R, Gastaca I, Nilsen H, Sacristán MP, Schnabel R, Cabello J. PLoS Genetics. 2019 Feb 26;15(2):e1007981.

The conserved LEM-3/Ankle1 nuclease is involved in the combinatorial regulation of meiotic recombination repair and chromosome segregation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hong Y, Velkova M, Silva N, Jagut M, Scheidt V, Labib K, Jantsch V, Gartner A. PLoS Genetics. 2018 June 7;14(6):e1007453.

The exocyst complex and Rab5 are required for abscission by localizing ESCRT III subunits to the cytokinetic bridge. Kumar H, Pushpa K, Kumari A, Verma K, Pergu R, Mylavarapu SVS. J. Cell Science. 2019 July 17;132(14).

LEM-3 is a midbody-tethered DNA nuclease that resolves chromatin bridges during late mitosis. Hong Y, Sonneville R, Wang B, Scheidt V, Meier B, Woglar A, Demetriou S, Labib K, Jantsch V, Gartner A. Nat Commun. 2018 Feb 20;9(1):728.

The myosin light chain kinase, MLCK-1 relocalizes during C. elegans ovulation to promote actomyosin bundle assembly and drive contraction. Kelley CA, Wirshing ACE, Zaidel-Bar R, Cram EJ. Mol Biol Cell. 2018 Aug 8;29(16):1975-1991.

CUL-2LRR-1 and UBXN-3 drive replisome disassembly during DNA replication termination and mitosis. Sonneville, R; Moreno, SP; Knebel, A; Johnson, C; Hastie, CJ; Gartner, A; Gambus, A; Labib, K. Nat Cell Biol. 2017 May;19(5):468-479.

Olfactory stem cells reveal MOCOS as a new player in autism spectrum disorders. Féron, F; Gepner, B; Lacassagne, E; Stephan, D; Mesnage, B; Blanchard, MP; Boulanger, N; Tardif, C; Devèze, A; Rousseau, S; Suzuki, K; Izpisua Belmonte, JC; Khrestchatisky, M; Nivet, E; Erard-Garcia, M. Mol Psychiatry. 2016 Sep;21(9):1215-24.

Ribonuclease-Mediated Control of Body Fat. Habacher, C; Guo, Y; Venz, R; Kumari, P; Neagu, A; Gaidatzis, D; Harvald, EB; Færgeman, NJ; Gut, H; Ciosk, R. Dev Cell. 2016 Nov 7;39(3):359-369.

Replication-Independent Histone Variant H3.3 Controls Animal Lifespan through the Regulation of Pro-longevity Transcriptional Programs. Piazzesi, A; Papić, D; Bertan, F; Salomoni, P; Nicotera, P; Bano, D. Cell Rep. 2016 Oct 18;17(4):987-996.

The C. elegans VAPB homolog VPR-1 is a permissive signal for gonad development. Cottee, PA; Cole, T; Schultz, J; Hoang, HD; Vibbert, J; Han, SM; Miller, MA. Development. 2017 Jun 15;144(12):2187-2199.

Mechanism of biofilm-mediated stress resistance and lifespan extension in C. elegans. Smolentseva, O; Gusarov, I; Gautier, L; Shamovsky, I; DeFrancesco, AS; Losick, R; Nudler, E. Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 2;7(1):7137.

Regulation of DJ-1 by Glutaredoxin 1 in Vivo: Implications for Parkinson’s Disease. Johnson, WM; Golczak, M; Choe, K; Curran, PL; Miller, OG; Yao, C; Wang, W; Lin, J; Milkovic, NM; Ray, A; Ravindranath, V; Zhu, X; Wilson, MA; Wilson-Delfosse, AL; Chen, SG; Mieyal, JJ. Biochemistry. 2016 Aug 16;55(32):4519-32.

Caenorhabditis elegans BUB-3 and SAN-1/MAD3 Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Components Are Required for Genome Stability in Response to Treatment with Ionizing Radiation. Bertolini, S;Wang, B;Meier, B;Hong, Y;Gartner, A. G3 (Bethesda). 2017 Dec 4;7(12):3875-3885.

A Bystander Mechanism Explains the Specific Phenotype of a Broadly Expressed Misfolded Protein. Klabonski, L;Zha, J;Senthilkumar, L;Gidalevitz, T. PLoS Genet. 2016 Dec 7;12(12):e1006450.

A Differentiation Transcription Factor Establishes Muscle-Specific Proteostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Bar-Lavan, Y; Shemesh, N; Dror, S; Ofir, R; Yeger-Lotem, E; Ben-Zvi, A. PLoS Genet. 2016 Dec 30;12(12):e1006531.

The nphp-2 and arl-13 genetic modules interact to regulate ciliogenesis and ciliary microtubule patterning in C. elegans. Warburton-Pitt, SR; Silva, M; Nguyen, KC; Hall, DH; Barr, MM. PLoS Genet. 2014 Dec 11;10(12):e1004866.

Extrachromosomal Array

Extracellular matrix regulates morphogenesis and function of ciliated sensory organs in Caenorhabditis elegans. De Vore DM, Knobel KM, Nguyen KCQ, Hall DH, Barr MM. bioRxiv. 2018 Jul 24: 1-60. 

Loss of function CHCHD10 mutations in cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation and synaptic integrity. Woo JA, Liu T, Trotter C, Fang CC, De Narvaez E, LePochat P, Maslar D, Bukhari A, Zhao X, Deonarine A, Westerheide SD, Kang DE. Nat Commun. 2017 Jun 6;8:15558.

Genome-Edited Zebrafish


Eyes shut homolog is required for maintaining the ciliary pocket and survival of photoreceptors in zebrafish. Yu, M; Liu, Y; Li, J; Natale, BN; Cao, S; Wang, D; Amack, JD; Hu, H. Biol Open. 2016 Nov 15;5(11):1662-1673.


Comparison of electrophysiological and  motility assays to study anthelmintic effects in Caenorhabditis elegans. Steffen R. Hahnel, William M. Roberts, Iring Heisler, Daniel Kulke, Janis C. Weeks. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance. Volume 16, August 2021, Pages 174-187.

In vitro screening methods for parasites: the wMicroTracker & the WormAssay. Emma Gunderson, Christina Bulman, Mona Luo, Judy Sakanari. microPublication Biology. July 2020.

Screening of a drug repurposing library with a nematode motility assay identifies promising anthelmintic hits against Cooperia oncophora and other ruminant parasites. Liu M., Landuyt B., Klaassen H., Geldhof P., Luyten W. Veterinary Parasitology. 2018 Dec. 

C. elegans Development and Activity Test Detects Mammalian Developmental Neurotoxins. Piper Reid Hunt; Nicholas Olejnik; Keenan D. Bailey; Cory A. Vaught; Robert L. Sprando. 2018 Nov; 121:583-592

Active principles of Tetradenia riparia. IV. Anthelmintic activity of 8(14),15-sandaracopimaradiene-7α,18-diol. Luc Van Puyvelde; Maoxuan Liu; Cedrick Veryser; Wim M. De Borggraeve; Joseph Mungarulire; Marie Jeanne Mukazayire; Walter Luyten. 2018 Apr; 216:229-232.

Rescue of ATXN3 neuronal toxicity in C . elegans by chemical modification of ER stress. Fardghassemi Y ; Tauffenberger A ; Gosselin S ; Parker JA. Dis Model Mech. 2017 Dec 19;10(12):1465-1480.

A rapid chemical ­genetic screen utilizing impaired movement phenotypes in C . elegans : Input into genetics of neurodevelopmental disorders. Schmeisser K ; Fardghassemi Y; Parker JA. Exp Neurol. 2017 Jul;293:101-114.

Twitchin kinase inhibits muscle activity. Matsunaga Y ; Hwang H ; Franke B ; Williams R ; Penley M ; Qadota H ; Yi H ; Morran LT ; Lu H ; Mayans O ; Benian GM. Mol Biol Cell. 2017 Jun 15;28(12):1591-1600.

Neurodegeneration in C. elegans models of ALS requires TIR-1/Sarm1 immune pathway activation in neurons. Veriepe J ; Fossouo L ; Parker JA. Nat Commun. 2015 Jun 10;6:7319.

Twitchin kinase interacts with MAPKAP kinase 2 in Caenorhabditis elegans striated muscle. Matsunaga Y ; Qadota H ; Furukawa M ; Choe HH ; Benian GM. Mol Biol Cell. 2015 Jun 1;26(11):2096-111.

Insulin/IGF-1 receptor signaling enhances biosynthetic activity and fat mobilization in the initial phase of starvation in adult male C. elegans. Tan KT ; Luo SC ; Ho WZ ; Lee YH. Cell Metab. 2011 Sep 7;14(3):390-402.

ScreenChip System

Comparison of electrophysiological and motility assays to study anthelmintic effects in Caenorhabditis elegans. Steffen R. Hahnel, William M. Roberts, Iring Heisler, Daniel Kulke, Janis C. Weeks. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance. July 2021.

Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) acts as a calorie restriction mimetic that increases intestinal fat and lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Davidvan de Klashorst, Ambervan den Elzen, Jasper Weeteling, Michael Roberts, Terun Desai, Lindsay Bottoms, Samantha Hughes. Journal of Functional Foods. Volume 68, May 2020, 103890.

Ahr-bacterial diet interaction modulates aging and associated pathologies in C. elegans. Vanessa Brinkmann, Alfonso Schiavi, Anjumara Shaik, Daniel R. Puchta, Natascia Ventura. bioRxiv. May 19, 2020.

Intrinsically aggregation-prone proteins form amyloid-like aggregates and contribute to tissue aging in Caenorhabditis elegans. Chaolie Huang, Sara Wagner-Valladolid, Amberley D Stephens, Raimund Jung, Chetan Poudel, Tessa Sinnige, Marie C Lechler, Nicole Schlörit, Meng Lu, Romain F Laine, Claire H Michel, Michele Vendruscolo, Clemens F Kaminski, Gabriele S Kaminski Schierle, Della C David. elife. May 3, 2019

Functional analysis of epilepsy‐associated variants in STXBP1/Munc18‐1 using humanized Caenorhabditis elegans. Bangfu Zhu, Jennifer C. H. Mak, Andrew P. Morris, Anthony G. Marson, Jeff W. Barclay, Graeme J. Sills, Alan Morgan. Epilepsia. 2020;61:810–821

Statins Induce a DAF-16/Foxo-dependent Longevity Phenotype via JNK-1 through Mevalonate Depletion in C. elegans. Andreas Jahn, Bo Scherer, Gerhard Fritz, Sebastian Honnen. Aging and Disease. Volume 11, Number 1; 60-72, February 2020.

The transcription factor NHR-8: A new target to increase ivermectin efficacy in nematodes. C. Ménez, M. Alberich, E. Courtot, F. Guegnard, A. Blanchard, H. Aguilaniu, A. Lespine. https://doi.org/10.1371/ journal.ppat.1007598

Electrophysiological measures of aging pharynx function in C. elegans reveal enhanced organ functionality in older, long-lived mutants. J. Russell, N. Burnaevskiy, B. Ma, M. Mailig, F. Faust, M. Crane, M. Kaeberlein, A. Mendenhall. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Nov. 2017.

Tool-Driven Advances in Neuropeptide Research from a Nematode Parasite Perspective. CJ McCoy, LE Atkinson, E Robb, NJ Marks, AG Maule, A Mousley. Trends Parasitol 2017 Dec;33(12):986-1002. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2017.08.009. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Rabies virus modifies host behaviour through a snake-toxin like region of its glycoprotein that inhibits neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS. K. Hueffer, S. Khatri, S. Rideout, M. Harris, R. Papke, C. Stokes & M. Schulte. Nature Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 12818 (2017)

Distinct unfolded protein responses mitigate or mediate effects of nonlethal deprivation of C. elegans sleep in different tissues.  J. Sanders, M. Scholz, I, Merutka and D. Biron. BMC Biology 2017 15:67.

Other Microfluidic EPG Platforms

Anthelmintic Drug Actions in Resistant and Susceptible C. elegans Revealed by Electrophysiological Recordings in a Multichannel Microfluidic Device.  J. Weeks, K. Robinson, S. Lockery, W. Roberts. IJP: Drugs and Drug Resistance. 2018 Oct 30; 8: 607-628.

Sertraline, Paroxetine, and Chlorpromazine Are Rapidly Acting Anthelmintic Drugs Capable of Clinical Repurposing. J. Weeks, W. Roberts, C. Leasure C, B. Suzuki, K. Robinson, H. Currey, P. Wangchuk, R. Eichenberger, A. Saxton, T. Bird, B. Kraemer, A. Loukas A, J. Hawdon, C. Caffre, N. Liachko. Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 17;8(1):975.

Microfluidic EPG Recordings Show Striking Pharyngeal Pumping Phenotype in a C. elegans Alzheimer’s Disease ModelJ. Weeks, K. Robinson, B. Wanjeri, P. Copenhaver, W. Roberts. Micropublication:biology. Oct. 2016.

Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research. J. Weeks, W. Roberts, K. Robinson, M. Keaney, J. Vermeire, J. Urban, Jr., S. Lockery and J. Hawdon. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2016 Dec; 6(3): 314–328. doi:  10.1016/j.ijpddr.2016.08.001.

A microfluidic device for whole-animal drug screening using electrophysiological measures in the nematode C. elegans. S. Lockery, S. Hulme, W. Roberts, K. Robinson, A. Laromaine, T. Lindsay, G. Whitesides, and J. Weeks. Lab Chip. 2012 Jun 21; 12(12): 2211–2220. doi:  10.1039/c2lc00001f.

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